Bitcoin (BTC)


It is obvious that the bitcoin mining market is being battle-tested in the wake of the 4th halving. Hash rate (income per terrahash) has actually reached historical lows as bitcoin’s block aid has actually been slashed. Meanwhile, the post-cutting in half mempool craze has actually subsided, fanning to the fire on currently stretched mining operators.

Nangeng Zhang, Founder and CEO of Singapore-based Canaan Inc, the creator of the very first bitcoin mining application-specific incorporated circuit (ASIC), took a seat with Bitcoin Magazine for the company’s first-ever interview with a North American media outlet to weigh in on the state of the market. Zhang talked about the origins of bitcoin mining and provided his point of view on the landscape for chip style in addition to patterns in ecological sustainability.

Zhang also determined blossoming chances for Bitcoin in the Middle East, in addition to the merging in between the bitcoin and expert system (AI) markets.

Listen to the complete audio interview including Canaan CEO Nangeng Zhang on the Bitcoin Magazine Podcast. Click here to tune in.

The Open Source Core of Bitcoin Mining

Canaan, established in 2013, changed mining with the launch of its very first AvalonMiner ASIC maker – marking a turning point in computational efficiency for those protecting the Bitcoin network. As the market moved far from conventional GPU and CPU-based hashing, the welcoming and commodification of specialized ASIC hardware saw commercial-scale mining operations start to take shape.

This step-change by Canaan did not take place in a vacuum, however caused the common expansion of ASIC-based hashing after the company open sourced both its Avalon hardware and management software application. Zhang kept in mind that this accept of the open source motion in the early days of bitcoin was “not a decision” however rather “a requirement for anyone who wants to get involved in the blockchain community” and a way “to decentralize computing power all over the world.”

“The best way to defend against [51% attacks], was to rapidly distribute ASIC-based computing to users worldwide”. In Zhang’s estimate, the threat of a 51% attack has actually considerably reduced due to the democratization and wide-scale release of ASICs. The open source nature of Canaan’s chip style has actually given that led significant companies consisting of China-based Bitmain and calculating stalwart Intel to produce their own ASIC devices.

Running (Bitcoin) Up Against Moore’s Law: Trends In Chip Efficiency

Canaan, as a designer of ASIC chips, has actually been a recipient of the boom in semiconductor production over the previous decade-plus. At the heart of this development lies Moore’s Law – an observation that computational efficiency has actually around doubled every 2 years. Today, companies consisting of Taiwan Semiconductor (TSMC), Samsung (SSLF), and Semiconductor Manufacturing International Corporation (SMIC) are increase towards 3 nanometer chip production in this mission for optimization.

However, the approach smaller sized and smaller sized scale architectures for semiconductors is not without difficulties. Increasing transistor density on smaller sized and smaller sized chips, specifically, sub-2 nanometer scales, conjures up quantum, instead of classical, impacts. This program shift causes transistor breakdown and a prospective divergence with Moore’s Law.

The concern has now ended up being: will Moore’s Law hold, or is the classical computational boom ending up being a quantum bust?

Zhang, confronted with the concern of these basic restrictions on ASIC calculation, acknowledged “in the past, when we boosted performance, the cost per terrahash went down. Today, this curve has flattened. This indicates that technological advancements are entering a new phase.”

“We are indeed seeing a slowdown in the advancement of process nodes, promoting us to adopt new transistor technologies like GA (gate array) or nanosheet technologies along with backside power delivery. This is not just making the surface smaller, but changing the structure of the circuit [itself].”

“Bitscoins.netputing appeals to a purely digital logic, but today, we are moving closer to a mixed signal design for analog implementations.” This boost in intricacy, according to Zhang, recommends the require for “design technology co-optimization (DTCC)” in between designers such as Canaan and the foundries that produce the chips themselves.

Despite these difficulties, Zhang thinks that AISC efficiency is “still on the rise for the next 3-5 years” and the business prepares to launch a minimum of 1 brand-new item annually with “over 20% efficiency gains” per generation.

This efficiency gain was on display screen at the Bitcoin Asia conference in Hong Kong on May 9th, where Canaan released its next-generation A15 AvalonMiner, boasting an 18.5J/T efficiency in contrast to the ~20J/T paid for by the previous A14 design. Zhang kept in mind the A15 as being especially enhanced for variable ecological conditions.

In specific, Canaan has actually allowed overclocking abilities in the A15, and Zhang satirized the typical avoid purchasers who frequently say: “‘oh you can get extra performance for free?!’” Sadly that’s not the case, according to Zhang, however the included abilities guarantee to produce extra functional versatility for consumers of the A15.

Decentralizing Computation: A Look To The Middle East

Now, more than ever, miners are on the lookout for efficiency gains to… *drumroll*… decrease their expenses and boost income. This is, of course, par for the course, however miners are turning to brand-new innovations and locations in their mission for low-cost power.

Zhang kept in mind a tactical shift on the part of Canaan to fulfill this modification in the market, highlighting the company’s current transfer to partner with mining companies in the Middle East area. “[The Middle East] is eager to invest in high-tech industries. These countries are particularly welcoming to Bitcoin and cryptocurrency. The Middle East holds great promise to become a crucial digital hub.”

On the subject of policy in the Middle East area, Zhang kept in mind that the area has “quickly advanced in establishing complimentary regulatory frameworks for mining”. It follows that companies like Zero Two – backed by Abu Dhabi’s sovereign wealth fund – have actually made considerable strides to incorporate bitcoin mining and its waste heat for the function of saltwater desalination.

Heat Check: Trends In Mining Sustainability

Since Canaan’s IPO on the NASDAQ in 2019, the bitcoin market has actually been on fire, and together with it, bitcoin mining business. Publicly traded megaminers like Marathon Digital Holdings Inc (NASDAQ: MARA) and Riot Platforms (NASDAQ: RIOT) ended up being home names throughout the 2020-2022 booming market upon bitcoin’s arrival to the mainstream.

But, with the increased presence, also came increased analysis from ecological companies, significantly the Ripple-moneyed and ill-conceived Change the Code project led by Greenpeace U.S.A..

When inquired about ecological criticisms of mining, Zhang appeared unphased, inviting conversation of sustainability in the mining sector. “Perceptions of bitcoin mining as environmentally unfriendly are changing… bitcoin mining can help to develop renewable energy industries.”

In specific, the Canaan CEO applauded heat regain as maybe the most significant pattern yet to play out in both domestic and business applications. “Mining heat recovery products have started this year. I think in a few years, I believe people will see many very impressive products that utilize heat from mining. Today, we can generate near-boiling water from mining operations.” This pattern, he thinks, underlies mining’s sustainable qualities and a basic pattern towards heat money making in mining as a whole.

Zhang also highlighted the hydropower market, whose power frequently experiences a supply-demand inequality, as a crucial location where mining might turbo charge sustainable release.

In lieu of battery storage, Zhang presumed that “[bitcoin mining] can allow these facilities to operate at full capacity most of the time. This can reduce the payback period to about 5 to 10 years – that means the same amount of capital can develop twice as many hydro-stations in the same time frame… the same principle applies to other renewable energy resources like solar and wind energy driven purely by economic factors.”

He thinks that mining will continue its pattern towards low-carbon energy resources and revealed optimism that the market vibrant driving the pursuit of inexpensive energy reveals that “mining can automatically balance between environmentalism, economic efficiency and development.”

AI and Bitcoin Convergence: Developing and Scaling Energy Assets

Typically, Bitcoin miners have actually been leaders in the power markets, gathering to where power is plentiful, and need is low. The cooperative relationship in between underdeveloped energy resources, and the naturally versatile and mobile network of bitcoin miners, has actually driven ASIC-based calculation to establish resources on the edge of the grid. But, according to Zhang, this is not the end of the story.

He sees a brand-new relationship forming in between AI information centers and bitcoin miners each looking for the lowest-cost energy inputs. Zhang made note of “major players” and “early movers” that have actually started to recognize the possible combination in between bitcoin mining and AI calculation.

“In this context, bitcoin mining can serve as an initial occupant of this [stranded] energy, [generating] economic benefits before AI computing power fully comes online. This is what we have seen in the past 6 months.”

Zhang also anticipates co-location of AI high-performance information centers and bitcoin mining even after AI centers are up and running: “Given the redundancy requirements for large-scale AI computing centers (25-30%) of power redundancy… bitcoin mining can use the redundant power and shut off when [AI comes online].”


The zero-sum mining market, as constantly, continues to be its own worst opponent. Coupled with the 4th halving, decrease in margins, and the next wave of ASIC efficiency, it would be reasonable to state that obtaining a benefit from mining might be as simple as squeezing blood from a (digital) rock.

But, on the margin, favorable patterns are occurring in the market – and the Canaan CEO sees chances are plentiful for resourceful mining and ASIC companies ready to blaze a path on the energy and expert system frontiers.

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